|Tourism and visitor management in protected areas (2018)
Editors: Yu-Fai Leung, Anna Spenceley, Glen Hvengaard, and Ralf Buckley
Protected areas are a key component of any global conservation strategy. Tourism provides a crucial and unique way of fostering visitors’ connection with protected area values, making it a potentially positive force for conservation. Protected area tourism’s economic benefits—which depend on beautiful natural areas, healthy wildlife and nature, and authentic cultures—can also be a powerful argument for conservation. Tourism in protected areas is a major part of the global tourism industry—an industry whose scale and impacts are enormous. Such a high volume of visitors implies certain needs for fundamental infrastructure and requirements for employment and human services, all of which have ramifications for the economy, society, culture and the environment. These Guidelines provide guidance on key issues to help managers achieve sustainable tourism in protected areas.
|Guidelines for tourism partnerships and concession for protected areas (2017)
Anna Spenceley, Susan Snyman and Paul Eagles
The tourism sector is recognized as the largest global market-based contributor to the financing of protected area systems in many countries. Protected areas are an essential tool for safeguarding the world’s biodiversity and preserving ecosystem services, currently at serious risk. In 2014, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) noted that, under appropriate safeguards, tourism can contribute to protected areas through partnerships and concessions. However, most countries currently underuse tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas.
The aim of these guidelines is to provide information to support protected area authorities to achieve sustainable tourism operations in their protected areas; to bring benefits to conservation and other purposes for which the protected area has been declared; and to avoid or mitigate negative impacts. The publication includes information on the fundamentals of tourism, different tourism partnerships, financing concessions, a step-by-step guide to concession processes, integrating sustainability, contract management and concession capacity requirements.
The guidelines are available online in English, French and Spanish.
|An introduction to tourism concessioning: 14 Characteristics of successful programs (2016)
Anna Spenceley, Hermione Nevill, Carla Faustiano Coelho and Michelle Souto
Governments and Protected Areas Authorities are under increasing pressure to preserve the beauty and biodiversity of their beaches, parks, and pristine natural sites, while also growing tourism activity. Tourism concessioning is one solution. Delivering successful tourism concessioning programs, however, is challenging and depends on the right mix of characteristics, technical expertise, and institutional experience.
This guideline sets the stage and core principles to be taken into consideration when designing successful tourism concessioning programs in protected areas.
Development of the guideline was led by the World Bank Group’s Tourism and Competitiveness Global Practice, and the International Finance Corporation’s Public-Private Partnership Transaction Advisory Department (C3P), drawing from experience in Mozambique, South Africa, and other parts of the world.
The document is currently available from several sites, using the links below:
|Tourism and the IUCN World Parks Congress, 2014 (2015)
Every decade, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) convenes a World Parks Congress (WPC), in conjunction with the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). The sixth WPC was held in Sydney, Australia, from 12 to 19 November 2014. It was a major event, bringing together 6000 delegates from across the world to discuss opportunities and challenges for protected areas. This paper is a Conference Report published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, which summarises the tourism activities that took place during the WPC.
|Visitor management (2015)
Anna Spenceley, Jon Kohl, Simon McArthur, Peter Myles, Marcello Notarianni, Dan Paleczny, Catherine Pickering, and Graeme Worboys
There are many different types of visitors to protected areas. They may be official guests to a national park; researchers working in a strict nature reserve; volunteers assisting with a national park work program; educational groups learning about special natural or cultural heritage; or people who conduct their business within a protected area including contractors and shop owners. Importantly, visitors also include tourists and recreationists. This book chapter briefly examines the types of visitors protected area managers may need to deal with and management considerations associated with such visitor use. The paper provides a focus on tourism and its management in this chapter. Depending on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected area category, tourism and recreation are common visitor uses of most protected areas and important contributors to local and national economies. As part of managing protected areas for tourists, the chapter describes a management framework for providing a range of recreation opportunities within reserves, the provision of visitor services and facilities and management responses to visitor impacts.
This chapter is published in “Protected area governance and management” edited by Graeme Worboys, Michael Lockwood, Ashish Kothari, Sue Feary and Ian Pulsford.
|Tourism and protected areas: A growing nexus of challenge and opportunity (2014)
Steve McCool and Anna Spenceley
Three significant trends are converging with the result of increasing the importance of understanding and managing the nexus of tourism and protected areas. Firstly, international travel and tourism continues to grow significantly, resulting in more people wanting to visit, learn and appreciate their natural and cultural heritage. Secondly, international conservation efforts are increasingly dependent on protected areas serving as the cornerstone of slowing (ideally stopping) the loss of biological diversity. Thirdly, demands from society on protected areas are not only increasing, they are diversifying as well. Increased demand is, in part, the result of a growing human population that competes for space with natural areas and its wildlife through other land uses such as agriculture. This editorial paper introduces a special edition of the journal Koedoe on “Tourism and Protected Areas” developed by the IUCN WCPA TAPAS Group.
|Ecotourism: planning for rural development in developing nations (2013)
Anna Spenceley and Ted Manning
This book chapter established the characteristics of good planning processes in natural destinations and for ecotourism enterprises, while outlining some of the challenges that can arise. The discussion concentrates on implications for local economic development while sustaining the resources on which ecotourism is based. This chapter is published in “The International Handbook on Ecotourism” edited by Roy Ballantyne and Jan Packer.
|Tourism Concessions in protected areas in Mozambique (2012): Analysis and Manual for Operators
Anna Spenceley and Rita Casimiro
Developing sustainable tourism concession models in and around Mozambique’s key protected areas, is one way for the Government of Mozambique (GoM) to get the private sector engaged, to enable communities to benefit from tourism development, job creation, and to help Mozambique’s tourism industry grow. When designed and implemented correctly, tourism concessions can greatly benefit a wide range of stakeholders, while ensuring the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity.
An analysis of concessions models in protected areas in Mozambique examined best practice models of tourism concessions in protected areas, looking at current practices implemented in Mozambique, in the southern Africa (e.g. South Africa, Namibia, Botswana), and other countries. Following the analysis, a Manual was developed that was designed to provide the private sector and stakeholders in general with a step-by-step guide to help them understand the process for obtaining and operating a tourism concession in Mozambique National Parks and Reserves.
|Rwanda – The success of tourism in general and Gorilla tourism in particular (2010)
Hannah Nielsen and Anna Spenceley
This paper was prepared as a background paper for the World Bank’s Africa Success Stories Study. The paper reviews the growth of gorilla viewing tourism in Rwanda, and considers the overall strategy and vision, marketing, the business environment and also implications for communities and conservation. A version of this paper also appears in the World Bank’s “Yes Africa Can.”
|Seminar on Ecotourism and Protected Areas in Africa: Contributing to community development and conservation. Summary Report (2008)
This seminar was held in Maputo, Mozambique, in November 2008. It focused on the contribution of ecotourism to community development, poverty reduction and financing of protected areas, as well as related social and environmental issues. This event was intended to provide opportunities for countries in the region to present experiences and examples, as well as analyzing the case of Mozambique and the Great Limpopo National Park, in order to reflect and discuss on the opportunities and challenges of ecotourism, related policy issues and management techniques. The seminar aimed at providing a practical experience for policy makers, managers, operators and development organizations involved in ecotourism, through dynamic exchanges and concrete examples.
|Ecotourism: Benefits for conservation and local people? (2006)
This article was written for the Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa, and reviews examples of ecotourism in Southern Africa, and demonstrates some of the positive examples emerging from the private sector, non-governmental organizations, community-based tourism enterprises and government.
|Nature based tourism and environmental sustainability in South Africa (2005)
Environmental impacts of tourism from four photographic wildlife tourism enterprises in South Africa are described. This paper from the Journal of Sustainable Tourism presents qualitative and quantitative data that was collected from Ngala Private Game Reserve, Pretoriuskop camp in Kruger National Park, Jackalberry Lodge, and Sabi Sabi using the Sustainable Nature-Based Tourism Assessment Toolkit (SUNTAT). Issues of best practice, motivations for responsible tourism and local livelihood strategies are reviewed.
|Economic analysis of Rhino conservation in a land-use context within the Southern Africa Development Community [SADC] region (2005)
Anna Spenceley and Jon Barnes
Market analysis of the value of black and white rhino in relation to land use in southern Africa. Evaluations of the Save Valley conservancies in Zimbabwe, the Torra and Puros conservancies in Namibia, Hluhluwe-Umfolozi and Phinda in South Africa.
|Tourism, Local Livelihoods and the Private Sector in South Africa: Case studies on the growing role of the private sector in natural resources management (2003)
Changing institutional arrangements and policies in tourism and how they affect the poor and their access to natural resources are explored. Seventeen case studies from South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe are used to illustrate how different stakeholders have influenced rural livelihoods.
The studies include Phumlani Lodge, Amadiba Adventures, Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary, the Makuleke, South African National Parks, the Greater St. Lucia Wetland park and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Driving forces behind the initiatives and the degree to which the poor have influenced them are explored.
|Integrating Biodiversity into the Tourism Sector: South Africa (2001)
The UNDP/UNEP/GEF Biodiversity Planning Support Programme (BPSP) commissioned this paper as one of twelve national studies on the integration of biodiversity into the tourism sector. The studies were specifically focused on how to incorporate global best practice into national biodiversity strategies and action plans.