Publications: Transfrontier conservation areas


Southern Africa Development Community Guideline for cross-border tourism products (2018)
Anna Spenceley 

This guideline provides information to guide the step-by-step development of tourism activities that take place within transfrontier conservation areas, and across international borders in southern Africa.  The types of cross-border tourism products addressed include:

  • annual or bi-annual events (e.g. trail running, mountain-bike or canoe events); and
  • cross-border tourism products with more regular departure dates that are made possible by existing TFCA structures (e.g. cross-border 4×4 trails and hiking trails).

Access via the SADC TFCA Portal here

Tourism concession guidelines for Transfrontier conservation areas in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) (2014)
Anna Spenceley 

TFCA guidelines coverThe aim of these guidelines is to provide guidance for tourism concessioning in TFCAs within the Southern African Development Community (SADC), whilst ensuring that both the conservation and development objectives of regional TFCAs are met, including rural development and community participation. They provide simple, clear, reliable, applicable, flexible and concise information, with links to more detailed information and templates.

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Evolution and innovation in Wildlife Conservation: From Parks and Game Ranches to Transfrontier Conservation Areas (2009)
Helen Suich, Brian Child and Anna Spenceley (Editors)

innovation bookThis is an indispensable reference for protected area and land managers, development practitioners and academics and students in conservation, land management, development and geography. Based on the most widespread research to date, this book provides a record of the evolving thought and approaches to achieving conservation in southern Africa. Early chapters deal with the traditional ‘fines and fences’ conservation that occurred in the colonial and early post-independence period. The final section deals with more recent innovations in the sector, focusing on building and strengthening the relationships between parks and society.

The book includes the chapter “Extensive wildlife production on private land in South Africa” by J. du Bothma, Helen Such and Anna Spenceley.

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Requirements for Sustainable nature-based tourism in Transfrontier Conservation Areas: A southern African Delphi Consultation (2008)
Anna Spenceley

Over the years a plethora of factors have been associated with sustainable tourism in the literature, but little has been done to prioritize those that are most important to stakeholders in destinations. In particular, this research aimed to identify factors perceived as essential for sustainable nature-based tourism operating in transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) in southern Africa. A Delphi consultation was conducted in which 518 southern African experts from government, academia, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and consultancies were invited to contribute. Participants rated the relative importance of 502 policy, planning, economic, environmental and social factors drawn from the literature, and additional factors suggested by regional consultees. A statistically significant level of consensus was achieved on 159 multidisciplinary factors considered to be ‘essential’ or ‘incompatible’ with sustainable nature-based tourism in TFCAs. The implications for the assessment of sustainable nature-based tourism in southern African TFCAs are discussed, with a review of how they relate to tourism in the Great Limpopo TFCA: a transboundary protected area that incorporates protected areas in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

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Economic Impacts of Transfrontier Conservation Areas : Tourism in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (2008)
Anna Spenceley, Pamhidzai Dzingirai and Zvikomborero Tangawami

The aim of this study was to establish the economic impacts of tourism accommodation and activities in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTFCA). The objectives included to:

– Establish the impacts of accommodation and tours operating in the TFCA;
– Establish levels of local benefits in relation to enterprise equity, local employment and wages from tourism in the GLTFCA;
– Ascertain revenues generated by tourism from tours and accommodation; and
– Establish whether the GLTFCA has an impact on tourism development.

This report prepared for the IUCN-Southern African Sustainable Use Specialist Group presents the results of this research.

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Peace Parks as Social Ecological Systems: Testing Environmental Resilience in Southern Africa (2007)
Anna Spenceley and Michael Schoon

TFCA AliThis book chapter provides a descriptive analysis of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park in southern Africa, and suggests that applying the framework of a ‘social-ecological system’ can help to understand the functioning of transfrontier conservation areas, and also lead to more constructive management. This chapter is published in “Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution” edited by Saleem Ali.

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Transfrontier conservation areas and sustainable nature-based tourism (2007)
Anna Spenceley

Benefits boundaries coverThis book chapter describes transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) in southern Africa, and explores their implications for nature-based tourism and biodiversity conservation. Political and planning factors that southern African stakeholders consider critical to the development of sustainable nature-based tourism in TFCAs are presented. The practical implications of their perceptions are discussed.  This chapter is published in “Tourism and Protected Areas: Benefits beyond boundaries” edited by Robyn Bushell and Paul Eagles.

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Tourism in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (2006)
Anna Spenceley

The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP) is a transboundary protected area that straddles the borders of Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. This paper describes current state and private sector tourism within the GLTP and planning initiatives that may promote responsible tourism, and describes the achievements by community-based tourism enterprises and public–private partnerships in generating economic, social and environmental benefits. The livelihoods of people living in the park are outlined in relation to government policies on land redistribution, resettlement and options for the future, and progress in biodiversity conservation and responsible nature-based tourism development within the GLTP over the past five years is evaluated.

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Tourism investment in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (2005)
Anna Spenceley

A scoping report detailing the status of tourism investment in the areas of Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe located within the Great Limpopo TFCA. An analysis of the drivers and constraints to sustainable tourism investment is also presented.

Download here
Download workshop report here