Call for Technical Contributions: Best practice guide for sustainable tourism in protected areas (3rd Edition)

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TAPAS Group members, and others involved in tourism and protected areas, are invited to contribute towards this fully updated edition of the IUCN WCPA  Best practice guide for sustainable tourism in protected areas.  Contributors would support this collaborative effort by providing a section, subsection, best practice case example, and/or digital images to the new BPG.

If you are interested in contributing towards any of the following sections, please let me know.

1. Introduction and Concepts
  1. Brief introduction to the potential role of tourism in protected areas (PA), tie to 2014 World Parks Congress themes, 2012 WWC themes, IUCN strategic plan, etc.
  2. Brief introduction of the old and new challenges (and opportunities) of tourism management in protected areas
    1. Here we acknowledge the notion of carrying capacity in the tourism management literature but we emphasize that this BPG will move beyond the flawed conceptualization and instead focus on a holistic/adaptive approach to sustainable tourism management
    2. Lack of visitation/tourism can also be a problem in some PAs
  3. Contextual (concise) description of global issues and forces influencing management of tourism (climate change, financial crisis, economic restructuring, security, technology, changes in governance, etc.)
  4. Purposes of BPG: help PA managers and other readers think critically about how to provide visitor use while protecting natural heritage; help make the decision on how much human induced change is acceptable
  5. What do we mean by ‘best practices’? Brief discussion of our assumptions and the influence of contextual factors
  6. Key concepts and scope: What do we mean by sustainability and tourism in protected areas?
    1. Emphasize that “sustainable tourism” is not a form of tourism but rather an overarching principle
    2. Link to related concepts, such as responsible tourism
    3. To integrate (instead of “balance”) tourism/visitor use with conservation goals; explain why the word choice
    4. Tourism management vs. visitor management, what is our focus
  7. What is the tourism/visitor experience? Diversity of tourism/visitor experience as related to PAs; why is visitor experience important?
  8. What is included in the book (terrestrial PAs is the main focus but including BPGs from coastal/marine PAs when appropriate)? What is outside the scope (e.g. cultural/archaeological sites)? Who is the intended audience (primarily PA managers, who else?)?
  9. Brief outline of the book
2. Historical, Cultural and Geographical Context
  1. Why is tourism in PA? How has the tourism-PA relationship evolved? When and how has sustainability been built into this relationship? How has this relationship contributed to PA designations (such as World Heritage sites)?
  2. Cultural context of PA management
  3. How have the public attitudes towards PAs and tourism in PAs evolved?
  4. geographic distribution of PA resources in different world regions in support of key PA tourism/visitor experiences; describe associated approaches to managing tourism (nature tourism, community-based tourism, ecotourism, geotourism, etc.; introduce several examples of good and established PA-tourism relationship in each of these approaches to set a positive tone)
3. Legal, Governance and Policy Issues
  1. Types of PA (IUCN categories, natural PA vs. cultural PA, terrestrial/coastal/marine, national vs local, public/parastatal/NGO/communal/private, designations such as World Heritage, Biosphere Reserve, UNESCO Geopark, etc.) and their related legal basis and policies; compare and contrast these PA types with respect to different goals of tourism development and related requirements to meet PA objectives (identifying the decision space for managers in different PA types)
  2. Global tourism policies and guidelines (WTO, UNEP, Global Sustainable Tourism Council, etc.)
  3. Legal basis/policies on individual tourists, groups, concessions
  4. Capacity of PA agencies for tourism management; recommendations for increasing management capacity
    1. Joint ventures and management, co-management
4. Positive Impacts of PA Tourism
  1. Start off by illustrating several documented examples of PA tourism that have generated positive impacts.
  2. A Summary of Positive Impacts and Trends
    1. Conservation (e.g., CBD, physical environment/landscape protection, etc.)
    2. Economic
    3. Community development
    4. Human health (healthy parks)
  3. Make an explicit connection of these impacts to the visitor experience
5. Negative Impacts of PA Tourism
  1. Start off by illustrating several documented examples of PA tourism that have generated negative impacts.
  2. A Summary of Negative Impacts and Trends
    1. Biophysical attributes (and cultural resources in natural settings)
    2. Tourism and PA infrastructure
    3. Community
  3. Make an explicit connection of these impacts to the visitor experience
6. Planning Principles and Process
  1. Key principles: consistency with PA objectives, integrating visitation and conservation goals, maximizing positive impacts while minimizing negative impacts, adaptive management, participatory approach, etc.
  2. General ties between PA planning process and sustainable tourism (what planning process can do to enhance the sustainability of tourism and its contributions to PA objectives)
  3. Planning principles for commercial tourism
  4. Planning principles for individual visitors
  5. Infrastructure and services, green technology
  6. Community-based tourism and engagement: basic principles (to be extended in the CapacityBuilding chapter); the rights and ethics of community involvement
  7. PA expansion in support of tourism
  8. Human resource management, staff, training, capacity building (briefly here, to be extended in the CapacityBuilding chapter)
  9. Tourism/visitor management plans
    1. Need and utility of plan document
    2. Key contents
    3. Good examples
7. Management and Monitoring Strategies
  1. Management principles for commercial tourism and individual visitors
  2. Brief introduction of several contemporary visitor management decision-making frameworks (LAC/VERP, VAMP, TOMM, etc.) and international examples of how they are applied
  3. The integral role of monitoring (tourism resources, use, impacts and management effectiveness) in support of decision-making frameworks and management
    1. Monitoring needs, objectives and priorities
  4. Monitoring strategies
    1. Tourism resources and infrastructure
    2. Tourism use and economic outputs (brief description of related databases, to be elaborated in the References chapter i.      Methods for estimating economic impacts of PA tourism
    1. Impact monitoring
    2. Visitor experience monitoring
    3. Monitoring management effectiveness (tourism-related, incl. rules compliance and law enforcement)
8. Tools for Tourism and Visitor Management
  1. Provide a comprehensive classification of management tools
  2. Organized description of tools and international examples of their applications
    1. Certifications (both industry and governmental examples: e.g., Green Globe, PANParks, European Charter for Sust Tour in PA, etc.)
    2. Regulatory and planning tools (rules and regulations, access restrictions, zoning, visitor use limits)
    3. Law enforcement
    4. Marketing (promotion) and demarketing
    5. Fees and economic tools
    6. Infrastructure, transportation and travel patterns
    7. Site design
    8. Natural resource management
    9. Concessions
    10. Technologies (green technology, best practices, public participation, social media)
    11. Education and interpretation
    12. Communication (with visitors and general public, including branding)
    13. Conflict management (visitors)
    14. Security and safety (inc. liability issues)
    15. Other tools to be identified throughout the revision
  3. Brief summary of empirical evaluation of the efficacy of the above tools
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